Health Conditions

Learn about diseases and health conditions, and browse the MedlinePlus directory for detailed information.
Alzheimer's Disease
Anabolic Steroids
Aortic Aneurysm
Atrial Fibrillation
Benign Tumors
Bird Flu
Blood Clots
Blood Sugar
Bone Cancer
Bone Density
Breast Cancer
Cardiac Arrest
Celiac Disease
Cesarean Section
Chemical Emergencies
Chlamydia Infections
Chronic Bronchitis
Cleft Lip and Palate
Cochlear Implants
Cold Sores
Congenital Heart Defects

Cosmetic Dentistry
Crohn's Disease
CT Scans
Cystic Fibrosis
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Dengue Fever
Diabetes Type 1
Diabetes Type 2
Diagnostic Imaging
Dietary Supplements
Ear Infections
E. Coli Infections
Eye Infections
First Aid
Food Labeling
Foreign Bodies
Fungal Infections

Genetic Counseling
Genital Herpes
Genital Warts
Giardia Infections
Gum Disease
Hair Loss
Health Insurance
Hearing Aids
Heart Attacks
Heart Surgery
Heart Transplantation
Hemorrhagic Fevers
Herbal Medicine
Herniated Disk
High Blood Pressure
Hip Replacement
HIV Infection
Hodgkin Disease
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Huntington's Disease
Indoor Air Pollution
Infectious Diseases
Intestinal Cancer
Kidney Stones
Kidney Transplantation
Knee Replacement
Lactose Intolerance
Laser Eye Surgery
Lead Poisoning
Legionnaires' Disease

Liver Diseases
Liver Transplantation
Lung Cancer
Lung Transplantation
Lyme Disease
Lymphatic Diseases
Macular Degeneration

Medical Device Safety
Medical Ethics
Medication Errors
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Motion Sickness
MRI Scans
Multiple Sclerosis
Muscle Cramps
Muscular Dystrophy
Neurologic Disease
Nose Injuries
Nuclear Scans
Occupational Health
Oral Cancer
Organ Transplants
Ovarian Cysts
Oxygen Therapy
Pancreatic Cancer
Parasitic Diseases
Parkinson's Disease
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Peptic Ulcers

Plastic Surgery
Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac
Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome
Postpartum Depression
Premature Babies
Premenstrual Syndrome
Prenatal Testing
Prostate Cancer
Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation
Quitting Smoking
Radiation Therapy

Rare Diseases
Respiratory Failure
Reye Syndrome
Rotator Cuff Injuries
Salmonella Infections
Sickle Cell Anemia
Skin Aging
Skin Cancer
Skin Infections
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Spider Bites
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spine Injuries
Spleen Diseases
Staphylococcal Infections

Stem Cells
Stomach Cancer
Streptococcal Infections
Stroke Rehabilitation
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Testicular Cancer
Throat Cancer
Thymus Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid Diseases
Tick Bites
Tinea Infections
Toddler Nutrition
Toilet Training
Tongue Disorders
Tonsils and Adenoids

Tourette Syndrome
Tubal Ligation
Turner Syndrome
Ulcerative Colitis
Usher Syndrome
Uterine Cancer
Vaginal Bleeding
Vaginal Cancer
Varicose Veins
Vascular Disease
Viral Infections
Voice Disorders
Vulvar Cancer
Weight Loss Surgery
West Nile Virus
Whooping Cough
Wilson Disease
Yeast Infections

Medical Assisting

Medical assistants complete administrative and clinical tasks in the offices of physicians, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities. Training programs in medical assisting take about 1 year to complete, and lead to a certificate or degree. Some community colleges offer 2-year programs that lead to an associate's degree, with classroom and labs in anatomy and medical terminology. Medical assistants also learn how to code both paper and electronic health records (EHRs) and how to record patient information. There may be additional months of on-the-job training to complete, depending on the medical facility.

Emergency medical technicians (EMT) and paramedics care for the injured in a variety of emergency medical settings. People's lives depend on their quick reaction times and competent care. Programs in emergency medical technology (EMT Training) are offered by technical institutes, community colleges, and facilities that specialize in emergency care training. Programs at the EMT level include instruction in assessing patients' conditions, dealing with trauma and cardiac emergencies, clearing obstructed airways, and using field equipment. EMT courses include about 150 hours of specialized instruction, and clinical training can be in a hospital or ambulance setting. At the 'Advanced EMT' level, there are 400 hours of instruction, where candidates learn skills such as using complex airway devices, administering intravenous fluids, and giving some medications.

Phlebotomists draw blood for tests, transfusions, research, or blood donations. Phlebotomy programs are available from community colleges, vocational schools, or technical schools. These programs usually take less than 1 year to complete, including classes in anatomy, physiology, medical terminology, and laboratory work, and lead to a certificate or diploma. Further, phlebotomists must learn specific procedures on how to identify, label, and track blood samples. The National Center for Competency Testing (NCCT), National Healthcareer Association (NHA), the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), and the American Medical Technologists (AMT) offer Phlebotomy Technician certifications. The average annual salary for phlebotomists was $45,630 in May 2021, and employment of phlebotomists is projected to grow 25 percent over the next 10 years.

Robot Stitches a Grape

The da Vinci Surgical System is used to stitch a grape back together. The same technology that can be used to suture a tiny grape is designed to help perform delicate, minimally invasive surgery.

Rhinoplasty Animation

Rhinoplasty may be sought in order to change the appearance of the nose for cosmetic purposes or to improve breathing. The upper portion of the structure of the nose is bone, and the lower portion is cartilage.

Herbal Medicine

Learn about medicinal herbs with Amy Hamilton, of Appalachian Seeds Farm & Nursery. Learn how to prepare your own fresh ingredients in forms that will be easy to preserve and utilize all year long.

Human Physiology

Explore the Wisconsin emergency medical technician (EMT) curriculum, with a comprehensive summary of human physiology.

Radiology & MRI

Radiologic and MRI Technologists perform diagnostic medical imaging examinations, such as x-rays, on patients. MRI technologists operate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to create diagnostic images. Radiation therapists treat cancer and other diseases by administering radiation treatments. Nuclear medicine technologists prepare radioactive drugs and administer them to patients. The radioactive dye cause abnormal areas of the body to appear stand out from unaffected areas in the images. An associate’s degree is the minimum requirement for radiologic and MRI technologists. In addition, you may pursue a graduate certificate or bachelor’s degree. Training programs include both classroom study and clinical work. Courses include anatomy, pathology, patient care, radiation physics and protection, and image evaluation.

The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) accredits programs in radiography. To become licensed, technologists must graduate from an accredited program, and pass a certifying exam. Certifications for radiologic technologists are available from the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). Certifications for MRI technologists are available from the American Registry of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists (ARMRIT). The average salary for radiation therapists was $78,220 in May 2021. Further, job openings for radiation therapists are projected to grow 14% over the next decade, much faster than the average for all occupations.

Respiratory Therapy

Respiratory therapists care for patients who have trouble breathing from a chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma or emphysema. Their patients range from premature infants with undeveloped lungs to elderly patients who have diseased lungs. Respiratory therapists need at least an associate’s degree, but employers may prefer applicants who have a bachelor’s degree. Courses deal with therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and tests, equipment, patient assessment, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In addition to coursework, programs have clinical components that allow respiratory therapists to gain supervised, practical experience in treating patients. Average salaries in 2021 were about $65,790 per year. Employment of respiratory therapists is projected to grow 12 percent from 2021 to 2025. Growth in the elderly population will lead to an increased incidence of respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia.

Licensure requirements in most states include passing a state or professional certification exam. The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC) is the main certifying body for respiratory therapists. The Board offers two levels of certification: Certified Respiratory Therapist (CRT) and Registered Respiratory Therapist. CRT is the first-level certification. Applicants must have earned an associate’s degree from an accredited respiratory therapy program, or completed the equivalent coursework in a bachelor’s degree program, and pass an exam. The second-level certification is RRT certification. Applicants must already have CRT certification, meet other education or experience requirements, and pass an exam.

Surgical Tech Training

Surgical technologists, also called operating room technicians, assist in surgical operations. They prepare operating rooms, arrange equipment, and help doctors during surgeries. Surgical technologists typically need a postsecondary certificate or an associate’s degree. The average wage for surgical technologists was $49,330 in May 2021. Employment chances may improve up to 15 percent from 2021 to 2025. Many community colleges and vocational schools, as well as some hospitals, have accredited programs in surgical technology. Surgical technologists are trained in the care and safety of patients, sterilization techniques, how to set up technical or robotic equipment, and preventing infections. First surgical assistants may complete a formal education program in surgical assisting. Others may work as a surgical technologist, and receive additional on-the-job training before becoming a first assistant.

Certification through The National Board of Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting allows the use of the title 'Certified Surgical Technologist (CST).' Certification through the National Center for Competency Testing allows the use of the title 'Tech in Surgery - Certified (NCCT).' The National Board of Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting, the National Commission for the Certification of Surgical Assistants, and the American Board of Surgical Assistants offer certification for surgical assistants.

Medical Job Outlook

Healthcare jobs such as Registered Nurses, LPN's, LVN's and related Medical Technicians provide over 15 million jobs, and ten of the 20 fastest growing occupations are healthcare-related. Most healthcare workers have jobs that require less than 4 years of college education, such as health technologists and technicians, medical records, billing and coding, health information technicians, diagnostic medical sonographers, radiologic technologists and technicians, and dental hygienists. As people age they have more medical problems, and hospitals will require more staff. Wages vary by the employer and area of the county. Aside from their salary, most medical jobs include excellent benefits, as well as retirement plans.

The National Commission for Certifying Agencies offers several certifications for medical assistants; Certified Medical Assistant (CMA), Registered Medical Assistant (RMA), Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA), and Certified Medical Administrative Assistant (CMAA). Contact your state board of medicine for more information. Employment of medical assistants is projected to grow 23% yearly through 2025, much faster than average.

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