Cryptocurrency and blockchain in general have become accepted as stores of value, generating a lot of excitement in the financial markets.

Coin Charts

  1. Bitcoin
  2. Ethereum
  3. Tether
  4. Polkadot
  5. XRP
  6. Cardano
  7. Chainlink
  8. Litecoin
  9. Bitcoin Cash
  10. Binance Coin
  11. Stellar
  12. USD Coin
  13. Wrapped Bitcoin
  14. Bitcoin SV
  15. Uniswap
  16. Aave
  17. EOS
  18. Monero
  19. Tezos
  20. TRON
  21. VeChain
  22. THETA
  23. NEM
  24. Cosmos
  25. Synthetix
  26. Neo
  27. Crypto.com Coin
  28. Maker
  29. Dai
  31. IOTA
  32. Binance USD
  33. Celsius
  34. Dogecoin
  35. Huobi Token
  36. Dash
  37. Filecoin
  38. Avalanche
  39. Revain
  40. Zcash
  41. Compound
  42. yearn.finance
  43. Solana
  44. FTX Token
  45. Kusama
  46. SushiSwap
  47. Ethereum Classic
  48. Zilliqa
  49. Waves
  50. The Graph
  51. Hedera Hashgraph
  52. Algorand
  53. Decred
  54. UMA
  55. NEAR Protocol
  56. Elrond
  57. HedgeTrade
  58. Ren
  59. Celo
  60. Loopring
  61. Basic Attention
  62. OMG Network
  63. Ontology
  64. renBTC
  65. Nano
  66. ICON
  67. Curve DAO Token
  68. TrueUSD
  69. Terra
  70. 0x
  71. Nexo
  72. THORChain
  73. Reserve Rights
  74. Stacks
  75. HUSD
  76. DigiByte
  77. OKB
  78. BitTorrent
  79. Enjin Coin
  80. Horizen
  81. NXM
  82. Qtum
  83. Decentraland
  84. Kyber Network
  85. SwissBorg
  86. IOST
  87. Paxos Standard
  88. Quant
  89. Energy Web Token
  90. Bitcoin BEP2
  91. Voyager Token
  92. Ocean Protocol
  93. TerraUSD
  94. Siacoin
  95. Ampleforth
  96. Verge
  97. Augur
  98. Bitcoin Gold
  99. Band Protocol
  100. Bancor


  1. 1inch
  2. Arweave
  3. Alpha Finance Lab
  4. Gnosis
  5. Lisk
  6. ABBC Coin
  7. Status
  8. Matic Network
  9. Theta Fuel
  10. Aragon
  11. MaidSafeCoin
  12. Balancer
  13. Helium
  14. Nervos Network
  15. Fantom
  16. Ravencoin
  17. Injective Protocol
  18. ZB Token
  19. FunFair
  20. Bitcoin Diamond
  21. Numeraire
  22. Golem
  23. RSK Infrastructure
  24. iExec RLC
  25. Kava.io
  26. Holo
  27. PAX Gold
  28. Pundi X
  29. MonaCoin
  30. Orchid
  31. Chiliz
  32. Utrust
  33. Civic
  34. Serum
  35. CyberVein
  36. TomoChain
  37. Unibright
  38. KuCoin Token
  39. Oasis Network
  40. Bytom
  41. IoTeX
  42. WaykiChain
  43. Secret
  44. Swipe
  45. Storj
  46. Syntropy
  47. Velas
  48. Venus
  49. Travala.com
  50. Ardor
  51. aelf
  52. Komodo
  53. Kleros
  54. Wanchain
  55. Steem
  56. BitShares
  57. Ankr
  58. DxChain Token
  59. JUST
  60. DFI.Money
  61. district0x
  62. SingularityNET
  63. Loom Network
  64. Kin
  65. OriginTrail
  66. WAX
  67. IRISnet
  68. Harmony
  69. Fetch.ai
  70. Morpheus.Network
  71. LTO Network
  72. Keep3rV1
  73. Hive
  74. Energi
  75. LBRY Credits
  76. xDai
  77. bZx Protocol
  78. Enzyme
  79. DIA
  80. Electroneum
  81. Syscoin
  82. Stratis
  83. Polymath
  84. Ark
  85. Divi
  86. AdEx Network
  87. Tellor
  88. Populous
  89. Power Ledger
  90. Firo
  91. SUN
  92. Aidos Kuneen
  93. Handshake
  94. Uquid Coin
  95. Mainframe
  96. Telcoin
  97. MCO
  98. TrustSwap
  99. Origin Protocol
  100. Akropolis

Bitcoin Blockchain

The bitcoin blockchain is a public ledger that records bitcoin transactions. It is implemented as a chain of blocks, each block containing a hash of the previous block up to the genesis block of the chain. A network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software maintains the blockchain. Transactions of the form payer X sends Y bitcoins to payee Z are broadcast to this network using readily available software applications.

Network nodes can validate transactions, add them to their copy of the ledger, and then broadcast these ledger additions to other nodes. To achieve independent verification of the chain of ownership each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain. At varying intervals of time averaging to every 10 minutes, a new group of accepted transactions, called a block, is created, added to the blockchain, and quickly published to all nodes, without requiring central oversight.

Bitcoin Ownership

In the blockchain, bitcoins are registered to bitcoin addresses. Creating a bitcoin address requires picking a random valid private key and computing the corresponding bitcoin address. Moreover, the number of valid private keys is so vast that it is extremely unlikely someone will compute a key-pair that is already in use and has funds. The vast number of valid private keys makes it unfeasible that brute force could be used to compromise a private key. To be able to spend their bitcoins, the owner must know the corresponding private key and digitally sign the transaction. The network verifies the signature using the public key; the private key is never revealed.

If the private key is lost, the bitcoin network will not recognize any other evidence of ownership. The coins are then unusable, and effectively lost. To ensure the security of bitcoins, the private key must be kept secret. If the private key is revealed to a third party, e.g. through a data breach, the third party can use it to steal any associated bitcoins. Losses have been enormous at selected cryptocurrency exchanges over the years.

Bitcoin Mining

Bitoin mining is a record-keeping service done through the use of computer processing power. Miners keep the blockchain consistent, complete, and unalterable by repeatedly grouping newly broadcast transactions into a block, which is then broadcast to the network and verified by recipient nodes. Each block contains a SHA-256 cryptographic hash of the previous block, thus linking it to the previous block and giving the blockchain its name.

Every 2,016 blocks (approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block), the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes. In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network.

The proof-of-work system, alongside the chaining of blocks, makes modifications of the blockchain extremely difficult, as an attacker must modify all subsequent blocks in order for the modifications of one block to be accepted. As new blocks are mined all the time, the difficulty of modifying a block increases as time passes and the number of subsequent blocks (also called confirmations of the given block) increases.

The successful miner finding the new block is allowed by the rest of the network to reward themselves with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees. To claim the reward, a special transaction called a coinbase is included with the processed payments. All bitcoins in existence have been created in such coinbase transactions. The bitcoin protocol specifies that the reward for adding a block will be halved every 210,000 blocks. Eventually, the reward will decrease to zero, and the limit of 21 million bitcoins will be reached. The record keeping will then be rewarded solely by transaction fees.

Cryptocurrency Wallets

Full clients verify transactions directly by downloading a full copy of the blockchain. They are the most secure and reliable way of using the network, as trust in external parties is not required. Full clients check the validity of mined blocks, preventing them from transacting on a chain that breaks or alters network rules. Because of its size and complexity, downloading and verifying the entire blockchain is not suitable for all computing devices.

Lightweight clients consult full clients to send and receive transactions without requiring a local copy of the entire blockchain (simplified payment verification – SPV). This makes lightweight clients much faster to set up and allows them to be used on low-power, low-bandwidth devices such as smartphones. When using a lightweight wallet, however, the user must trust the server to a certain degree, as it can report faulty values back to the user. Lightweight clients follow the longest blockchain and do not ensure it is valid, requiring trust in miners.

Physical Wallets

Physical wallets store the credentials necessary to spend bitcoins offline and can be as simple as a paper printout of the private key. A paper wallet is created with a keypair generated on a computer with no internet connection; the private key is written or printed onto the paper and then erased from the computer. The paper wallet can then be stored in a safe physical location for later retrieval. Bitcoins stored using a paper wallet are said to be in cold storage.

Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, the founders of the Gemini Trust Co. exchange, reported that they had cut their paper wallets into pieces and stored them in envelopes distributed to safe deposit boxes across the United States. Through this system, the theft of one envelope would neither allow the thief to steal any bitcoins nor deprive the rightful owners of their access to them. Thus, they created a physical 'blockchain-like' system to safely store their keys.

Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins with a private key accessible under a security hologram in a recess struck on the reverse side. The security hologram self-destructs when removed from the token, showing that the private key has been accessed. Originally, these tokens were struck in brass and other base metals, but later used precious metals as bitcoin grew in value and popularity.

Another type of physical wallet called a hardware wallet keeps credentials offline while facilitating transactions. The hardware wallet acts as a computer peripheral and signs transactions as requested by the user, who must press a button on the wallet to confirm that they intended to make the transaction. Hardware wallets never expose their private keys, keeping bitcoins in cold storage even when used with computers that may be compromised by malware.

Winklevoss Twins - Bitcoin

Tyler Winklevoss, CEO and co-founder of Gemini, and Cameron Winklevoss, president and co-founder of Gemini, join Real Vision CEO Raoul Pal to discuss how they first discovered Bitcoin, their exploration into other crypto assets, and market psychology.

Vitalik Buterin - Ethereum

Vitalik Buterin, founder and inventor, introduces Ethereum at the Bitcoin Miami conference 2014. Vitalik related that the project stands to change how the world relates to currency and financial instruments.

The Blockchain Explained

A blockchain is a method of storing a list of entries, which cannot be changed easily after they are created. This also applies to the list itself. This is done by using several concepts from cryptography, including digital signatures and hash functions.

Smart Contracts

Smart Contracts are much like legal contracts except instead of legal language defining the terms, computer code dictates the contract’s terms. Unlike traditional contracts which require a court to mediate disputes, smart contracts are self-executing within the blockchain.


Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain featuring smart contract functionality. Ether (ETH) is the native cryptocurrency of the platform. It is the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization. Ethereum is the most actively used blockchain, proposed by programmer Vitalik Buterin. Development was crowdfunded in 2014, and the network went live on 30 July 2015, with 72 million coins premined. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) can execute scripts and run decentralized applications. Ethereum is used for decentralized finance, and has been utilized for many initial coin offerings. In 2016, a hacker exploited a flaw in a third-party project called The DAO and stole $50 million of Ether. As a result, the Ethereum community voted to hard fork the blockchain to reverse the theft and Ethereum Classic (ETC) continued as the original chain. Ethereum has started implementing a series of upgrades called Ethereum 2.0, which includes a transition to proof of stake and an increase in transaction throughput using sharding.

Smart contracts

A smart contract is a computer program, or transaction protocol, which is intended to automatically execute, control or document legally relevant events and actions according to the terms of a contract or an agreement. The objectives of smart contracts are the reduction of need in trusted intermediators, arbitrations and enforcement costs, fraud losses, as well as the reduction of malicious and accidental exceptions. Vending machines are mentioned as the oldest piece of technology equivalent to smart contract implementation. Since Ethereum, various cryptocurrencies support scripting languages which allow for more advanced smart contracts between untrusted parties. Smart contracts should be distinguished from smart legal contracts. The latter refers to a traditional natural language legally-binding agreement which has certain terms expressed and implemented in machine-readable code.

Cryptocurrency Careers

As you might imagine, tech skills are crucial to landing a job in the cyptocurrency market, as many job listings call for hard skills, including Java, machine learning, Python, artificial intelligence (AI), C/C++, Node.js, and Amazon web services. However, there are opportunities for candidates with soft skills, such as communication, creativity, and problem-solving, and who are entrepreneurial, self-motivated, and team players.

Job Search
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